Background and aim :  

    The CHORUS study (Chronic venous and HemORrhoidal diseases evalUation and Scientific research) was conducted to provide data on patients presenting with hemorrhoidal disease (HD) in clinical practice and to explore the frequency with which it coexists with chronic venous disease (CVD) and shared risk factors. 

    Methods :  

    This international, noninterventional study enrolled adult patients attending a consultation for hemorrhoidal complaints. The questionnaire completed by physicians established the subjects’ demographic and lifestyle characteristics and collected information on HD grade and symptoms and signs of CVD. 

    Results :  

    A total of 5617 patients were analyzed. Symptoms commonly reported were bleeding (71.8%), pain (67.4%), swelling (55.0%), itching (44.1%), and prolapse (36.2%). Multivariate analysis revealed the variables with the strongest association with HD severity were older age, higher CVD CEAP (Clinical manifestations, Etiologic factors, Anatomic distribution of disease, and underlying Pathophysiology) class, constipation, and male gender (all P < 0.0001). Elevated BMI was a risk factor for HD recurrence. Among women, number of births had a significant association with both HD grade and recurrence. The presence of CVD, reported in approximately half the patients (51.2%), was strongly associated with advanced grade of HD (P < 0.0001). Treatments most commonly prescribed were venoactive drugs (94.3%), dietary fiber (71.4%), topical treatment (70.3%), analgesics (26.3%), and surgery (23.5%). 

    Conclusions :  

    CHORUS provides a snap shot of current profiles, risk factors, and treatments of patients with HD across the globe. The coexistence of HD and CVD in more than half the study population highlights the importance of examining for CVD among patients with a hemorrhoid diagnosis, particularly when shared risk factors are present. 

    Keywords : chronic venous disease; hemorrhoidal disease; risk factors, CHORUS study. 


    Electronically published on October 30th, 2019. Published in Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 35(4):577-585 on April, 2020. 


    For full text : Wiley Online Library : Management and evaluation of treatment adherence and effectiveness in chronic venous disorders: results of the international study VEIN Act Program | SpringerLink