Chronic venous disease (CVeD) is a highly prevalent condition in the general population, and it has a significant impact on quality of life. While it is usually manifested by obvious signs, such as varicose veins and venous ulcers, other symptoms of the disease are less specific. Among the other symptoms, which include heaviness, swelling, muscle cramps and restless legs, pain is the symptom that most frequently compels CVeD patients to seek medical aid. However, there is a substantial discrepancy between pain severity and clinically detectable signs of CVeD, questioned by several opposing studies.
    Further evaluation is needed to clarify this subject, and to analyse whether pain development predicts objective CVeD progression. General management of CVeD starts with advising lifestyle changes, such as lowering body mass index
    and treating comorbidities. However, the mainstay of treatment is compression therapy, with the additional use of pharmacological substances. Venoactive drugs proved to be the drugs of choice for symptom alleviation and slowing the progression of CVeD, with micronized purified flavonoid fraction being the most effective one. Interventional therapy is reserved for advanced stages of the disease.

    For full text: Current Vascular Pharmacology; https://doi.org/10.2174/1570161116666180209111826